Acne - Type, Cause, and the Greatest Treatment


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Acne is a common skin disease condition that affects many people around the world. As of September 2020, a survey stated acne is at the highest rank (29.9%) of the common skin problems among Indonesian women. From teenagers to adults, men and women have the same potential of experiencing this condition. Do you ever wonder what causes acne? or what type of acne you experience, and how to treat and prevent acne?


Here's the right source to acknowledge acne.


What's Acne?

Acne is characterized as a small red bump with or without visible pus on the face, chest, and back. The primary cause of acne is a blocked skin pore (hair follicles). Thus, when the skin pore is blocked, sebum will be trapped within. In that circumstance, the skin is susceptible to being attacked by Propionibacterium acnes, which forms skin inflammation and acne.


Type of Acne Lesions


Blackhead, and whitehead are comedones acne, while papules, pustules and nodules/cystic are the inflammatory acne. Blackhead, whitehead, pustules, papules, nodules and cystic are the type of acne vularis
Blackhead, whitehead, papules, pustules, nodules/cystic are the common lesions of acne vulgaris.

Actually, acne has many types: acne conglobata, acne excoriee, acne rosacea, acne fulminans, acne mechanica, acne medicamentosa, and a few more. Nevertheless, acne vulgaris is a prevalent case among all.


Different acne has differentiated lesions as well. In acne vulgaris, there are several lesions that mostly appear.

  • Comedones (Non-inflammatory) Lesion

This lesion is generally marked with whitehead (closed comedo) and blackhead (opened comedo).


- Whitehead is an acne lesion that usually appears on the skin as a small white bump under the surface of the skin. Further, a whitehead is formed when oil and skin cells block the opening pores. Besides, milia is a name of chronic whitehead condition where sloughed skin cells become trapped in small pockets on the surface of the skin.


- Blackhead is a non-inflammatory lesion that is filled with excess oil and dead skin cells. Blackhead is named opened comedo since the surface of the skin remains open with dark appearance such as brown and black colour.

  • Inflammatory (Non-comedones) Lesion

This type of lesion is typically marked with swelling, heat, redness, and pain bumps symptoms. Papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts are classified as inflammatory acne.


- Papules are visible with firm small pink bumps without pus.


- Pustules are usually contained visible pus with red as the base, and yellowish or whitish as the inflamed centre.


- Nodules/Cysts are painful lesions for they are signed with either 5 or 10 mm in both width and depth. Besides, they contain inflamed large pus-filled lesions that are generally present deep within the skin. Nodules/acne cystic are forms of the contents of a comedo that is shedding over the surrounding skin and due to the response of the local immune system in producing pus.


Causes of Acne


The cause of acne. Acne is multiple factors condition.

Even though acne is a common skin condition, it cannot be simplified to declare the cause of acne for an individual has the different root of problems. Anamnesis and proper checks are necessary to identify the cause. Substantially, there are various factors including genetic, hormonal, sebaceous activity, bacteria, climate, chemical, and psychological.


- Genetic The cause of acne is probably due to more than one factor, but genetic may be dominant. If both or one of the parents experience acne, then one or two children will get acne. However, not every family will experience the same since acne vulgaris sometimes skipping generations.


- Hormonal

Hormonal activity such as menstrual cycles and puberty is one of the causes of acne. During puberty, the androgen hormone causes the sebaceous gland to grow larger resulting in produce more sebum.


- Sebaceous Activity When activity becomes hyperactive than normal activity, the sebaceous gland will be affected. P. acnes bacteria will attack the trapped sebum inside the blocked pores.


Triggering Factors

Besides, there are several factors that could trigger acne such as :

- Hygiene

- Certain Foods which contains high sugar and milk

- Comedogenic cosmetic

- Lifestyle (smoking cigarettes, and consuming alcohol)


Acne Treatment

Acne has a differential diagnosis, so to get proper and precise treatment, the doctor needs to review your basis. Furthermore, to be highlighted, acne is the result of :

- Dead skin cells

- Excess sebum production

- Bacteria

- Inflammation


Consequently, there are various treatments or ways to conquer mild to severe acne :


Topical Treatment

A topical medication is a medication that can be applied to a particular place on the surface of the body. Using a cream or a gel, for instance. Moreover, the cream contains anti-inflammation, and antibacterial may be used to eliminate mild acne.


Oral Treatment

Not only from the outside but severe cases of acne should be helped from the inside by taking oral medication. Anti-inflammation and antibiotics may be suggested to solve acne. Nonetheless, need to remember that surveillance from the expert is needed to get this therapy.


Physical Modalities

Since acne is a chronic skin condition, certain conditions need to do combine therapy to maximize the result. Moreover, acne treatment varies depending on what your dermatologist has prescribed for you. At IORA Clinic, we present laser treatments to advanced treatments through consultation.


- Laser Laser treatment has proven to destroy P. acnes and sebaceous glands. Further, the laser aims to exterminate overactive sebaceous glands and reduce inflammation in acne.


- Flash Lamp

Flash lamp is effective in reducing inflammation, redness, and assassinating the bacteria.


- Extraction

Comedo plays a role in forming acne, so extraction or facial treatment from an expert is needed in preventing the break-out.


- Pure Toxin

Pure toxin helps to lessen the production of sebum to prevent the bacteria attack and accumulation of dead skin cells.


When to See a Doctor?

Acne has a variety of lesions, from minor to major. Mild acne-like non-inflammatory acne easily tends to eliminate rather than severe acne-like inflammatory acne. Further, acne-prone skin may struggle a lot due to underlying factors such as genetics or hormones, so treatment and therapy from an expert are needed to heal and prevent the further break-out. If you are experiencing stubborn pimples continuously, it's time to seek help from dermatologists.